4.0 IP Routing Technologies
- 4.1 Explain the purpose and features of various network appliances.
- 4.1.a Packet forwarding
Packet forwarding is the relaying of packets from one network segment to another by nodes in a computer network.
- More From Wikipedia -
RFC 1180 is a tutorial on the TCP/IP protocol suite, focusing particularly on the steps in forwarding an IP datagram from source host to destination host through a router.
- 4.1.b Router lookup process
- 4.1.c Process Switching/Fast Switching/CEF
- 4.2 Configure and verify utilizing the CLI to set basic Router configuration
- 4.3 Configure and verify operation status of an Ethernet interface
- 4.4 Verify router configuration and network connectivity using
- 4.4.a ping
The PING utility tests connectivity between two hosts by sending an ICMP Echo Request to a destination host to verify IP connectivity. Ping can also be used to isolate network hardware problems and incompatible configurations by providing indicators of the general speed or reliability of network connections.
Command options include:
- -t : Pings the specified host until stopped
- -a : Resolves addresses to hostnames
- -n : Count Number of echo requests to send
- -l : Adjusts the size of the ping packet
- -w : Adjusts the time-out (in milliseconds)
- hostname : Tests connectivity to a particular host
- 4.4.b traceroute
Traceroute is a utility program very similar to Ping, except that Tracert identifies the network path of test data sent to a remote computer, rather than the time it takes for each packet to return. It will list all the routers it passes through until it reaches its destination, or fails to and is discarded. In addition to this, it will tell you how long each 'hop' from router to router takes.
- 4.4.c telnet
Short for Telecommunications network, TELNET is a text based interface protocol that provides an insecure remote access to other computers. Telnet uses a command line interface and can be accessed in Windows from the Start menu by clicking <Start>, <Run>, then by typing: telnet (somesite) 23. Port number 23 is the default port used by telnet, but is usually optional and often not required.
- 4.4.d SSH
Secure Shell (SSH) is a cryptographic remote login protocol for secure data communication over an unsecured network. Designed as a replacement for telnet and rlogin, which send information in plaintext, SSH client and server programs provide strong host-to-host and user authentication as well as a number of securely encrypted methods of communication to provide confidentiality and integrity of data. SSH supports data stream compression between the client and the server.
There are two major versions of the SSH protocol in widespread use, SSH v1 and SSH v2. SSH v2 is more secure, and includes SFTP, which is similar to FTP, but is SSH v2 encrypted.
- 4.4.e Show cdp neighbors
- 4.5 Configure and verify routing configuration for a static or default route given specific routing requirements
- 4.6 Differentiate methods of routing and routing protocols
- 4.6.a Static vs. dynamic
Static routing occurs when a router uses a manually-configured routing entry to forward traffic. This requires the manual input of the route table by a network administrator, is time consuming, and errors may occur.
Dynamic routing is performed automatically. If a change occurs in the topology the dynamic routing protocol can re-calculate its route.
- 4.6.b Link state vs. distance vector
- 4.6.c Next hop
- 4.6.d Ip routing table
- 4.6.e Passive interfaces (how they work)
- 4.7 Configure and verify OSPF (single area)
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a link-state interior gateway protocol that routes Internet Protocol (IP) packets solely within a single autonomous system. OSPF uses a metric of cost based on the Shortest Path First algorithm to find the least-cost path to any destination in the network. Popular because of its scalability, fast convergence, and vendor-interoperability. In operation, each router using OSPF sends a list of its neighbors to other routers on the network. From this information, routers can determine the network design and the shortest path for data to travel.
- 4.7.a Benefit of single area
- 4.7.b Configure OSPv2 in a single area
- 4.7.c Configure OSPv3 in a single area
- 4.7.d Router ID
- 4.7.e Passive interface
- 4.8 Configure and verify interVLAN routing (router on a stick)
- 4.8.a Sub interfaces
- 4.8.b Upstream routing
- 4.8.c Encapsulation
- 4.9 Configure SVI interfaces.