1.0 Operating Systems

1.3 Given a scenario, use appropriate command line tools.

  • Networking

    • PING The PING utility tests connectivity between two hosts by sending an ICMP Echo Request to a destination host to verify IP connectivity. Ping can also be used to isolate network hardware problems and incompatible configurations by providing indicators of the general speed or reliability of network connections.

      Command options include:

      • -t : Pings the specified host until stopped
      • -a : Resolves addresses to hostnames
      • -n : Count Number of echo requests to send
      • -l : Adjusts the size of the ping packet
      • -w : Adjusts the time-out (in milliseconds)
      • hostname : Tests connectivity to a particular host

    • TRACERT Traceroute is a utility program very similar to Ping, except that Tracert identifies the network path of test data sent to a remote computer, rather than the time it takes for each packet to return. It will list all the routers it passes through until it reaches its destination, or fails to and is discarded. In addition to this, it will tell you how long each 'hop' from router to router takes.

    • NETSTAT Netstat (Network Statistics) is a command-line tool that displays network connections (both incoming and outgoing), routing tables, and a number of network interface statistics. It is available on Unix, Unix-like, and Windows NT-based operating systems.

    • IPCONFIG The IPConfig command line utility is used to display or set TCP/IP configuration settings of network interfaces including the IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, MAC address, and DNS names. It also helps with reconfiguration of your IP address through release and renew.

      To use Ipconfig in Windows 2000 or XP;

      • Begin with Start, and select Run. This opens the "Run Line" dialog frame. Type cmd on the line and press Enter to invoke the Command Prompt utility. At the command prompt, type ipconfig, and press Enter.

      In Windows 7;

      • Begin with Start, type cmd in the Search Bar and press Enter to invoke the Command Prompt utility. At the command prompt, type ipconfig, and press Enter.

      Optional switches for Ipconfig include:

      • /? Displays the Help menu for ipconfig.
      • /all Displays full configuration information.
      • /release Releases the IP address for the specified adapter.
      • /renew Renews the IP address for the specified adapter.

    • NET

      The NET Command is used to manage network resources.


      Nslookup.exe is a command-line administrative tool for testing and troubleshooting DNS servers. In its most basic usage, NSLookup returns the IP address with the matching host name.

    • NBTSTAT Nbtstat (NetBios over TCP/IP) is designed to help troubleshoot NetBIOS name resolution problems. When a network is functioning normally, NetBIOS over TCP/IP resolves NetBIOS names to IP addresses.

  • OS

    • KILL

      The command "KILL", or "TASKILL" in Windows, is a command-line utility for terminating active processes by process ID (PID) or by image name.

      Command options include:

      • /S Specifies the remote system to connect to.
      • /U Specifies the user context under which the command should execute.
      • /P Specifies the password for the given user.
      • /IM Identifies process by the image name.
      • /PID Identifies process by the process identification number.
      • /T Terminates specified process and any child process which was started by it.
      • /F Forcefully terminates process.
      • /? Opens a Help dialog for this command.



    • TLIST

    • MD

    • RD

    • CD

    • DEL

    • FDISK

    • FORMAT

    • COPY

    • XCOPY



    • SFC

    • CHKDSK

    • [command name] /?

  • Recovery console

    • Fixboot

    • Fixmbr


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